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Photogravure from a photograph.

Although Lord Curzon is the Viceroy of India, and practically the monarch of two hundred and fifty millions of people, he is almost youthful in appearance. As he was born in 1859, and is now but forty-one years of age, he is probably the youngest viceroy that England has ever sent to govern India. In addition to his position as a statesman he is also an author of note. In 1895 he married Miss Mary Leiter, the daughter of L. Z. Leiter, of Chicago.

















Translator's Preface 3

Introduction 5


The Story of the Jackal, Deer, and Crow 13

The Story of the Vulture, the Cat, and the Birds 14

The Story of the Dead Game and the Jackal 23

The Prince and the Wife of the Merchant's Son 26

The Story of the Old Jackal and the Elephant 27


The Story of the Lion, the Jackals, and the Bull 30

The Story of the Monkey and the Wedge 32

The Story of the Washerman's Jackass 33

The Story of the Cat who Served the Lion 38

The Story of the Terrible Bell 40

The Story of the Prince and the Procuress 42

The Story of the Black Snake and the Golden Chain 44

The Story of the Lion and the Old Hare 45

The Story of the Wagtail and the Sea 48

WAR 52

The Battle of the Swans and Peacocks 52

The Story of the Weaver-Birds and the Monkeys 53

The Story of the Old Hare and the Elephants 55

The Story of the Heron and the Crow 57

The Story of the Appeased Wheelwright 58

The Story of the Dyed Jackal 61

The Story of the Faithful Rajpoot 64


The Treaty Between the Peacocks and the Swans 71

The Story of the Tortoise and the Geese 72

The Story of Fate and the Three Fishes 72

The Story of the Unabashed Wife 73

The Story of the Herons and the Mongoose 74

The Story of the Recluse and the Mouse 75

The Story of the Crane and the Crab 76

The Story of the Brahman and the Pans 77

The Duel of the Giants 78




The Story of the Brahman and the Goat 81

The Story of the Camel, the Lion, and His Court 81

The Story of the Frogs and the Old Serpent 83


Introduction 91


Part 1 93

Part II 132


Introduction 167

Invocation 169



I. Narad 171

[Cantos II., III., IV., and V. are omitted]

VI.— The King 181

VII.— The Ministers 184

VIII. Sumantra's Speech 187

IX. Rishyasring 190

X. Rishyasring Invited 197

XI. The Sacrifice Decreed 201

XII. The Sacrifice Begun 204

XIII. The Sacrifice Finished 208

XIV. Ravan Doomed 214

XV.— The Nectar 219

XVI.— The Vanars 222

XVII. Rishyasring's Return 226

XVIII. Rishyasring's Departure 231

XIX.— The Birth of the Princes 234

XX. Visvamitra's Visit 237

XXI. Visvamitra's Speech 240

XXII. Dasaratha's Speech 243

XXIII.— Vasishtha's Speech 246

XXIV.— The Spells 248

XXV.— The Hermitage of Love 251

XXVI.— The Forest of Tadaka 254

XXVII.— The Birth of Tadaka 258

XXVIII.— The Death of Tadaka 260

XXIX.— The Celestial Arms 264

XXX. The Mysterious Powers 267

XXXI. The Perfect Hermitage 2/0

XXXII. Visvamitra's Sacrifice 273



XXXIII.— The Sone 276

XXXI V.— Brahmadatta 279

XXXV.— Visvamitra's Lineage 285

XXXVL— The Birth of Ganga 288

[Cantos XXXVII, and XXXV III. are omitted}

XXXIX.— The Son of Sagar 291

XL. The Cleaving of the Earth 294

XLL— Kapil 297

XLII. Sagar's Sacrifice 300

XLIIL— Bhagirath 303


Introduction 309

Dramatis Persons 317

Rules for Pronunciation of Proper Names 318

Prologue 319

Act First 321

Act Second 334

Prelude to Act Third 345

Act Third 346

Prelude to Act Fourth 357

Act Fourth 360

Act Fifth 373

Prelude to Act Sixth 386

Act Sixth 389

Act Seventh 406


Introduction 425


Jogadhya Uma 435

Buttoo 442


Part 1 450

Part II 452

Part III 458


Near Hastings 461

France 462

The Tree of Life 463

Madame Therese 464

Sonnet 465

Sonnet 465

Our Casuarina-Tree 466



LORD CURZON ....... Frontispiece

Photogravure from a Photograph


Fac-simile example of Oriental Printing and Engraving

PAGE OF HINDOSTANEE . . . . . . .164

Fac-simile example of Oriental Printing and Engraving




[Translated from the Sanscrit by Sir Edwin Arnold]


A STORY-BOOK from the Sanscrit at least possesses the minor merit of novelty. The " perfect language " has been hitherto regarded as the province of scholars, and few of these even have found time or taste to search its treasures. And yet among them is the key to the heart of modern India as well as the splendid record of her ancient Gods and glories. The hope of Hindostan lies in the intelligent interest of England. Whatever avails to dissipate misconcep- tions between them, and to enlarge their intimacy, is a gain to both peoples; and to this end the present volume aspires, in an humble degree, to contribute.

The " Hitopadesa " is a work of high antiquity, and extended popularity. The prose is doubtless as old as our own era ; but the intercalated verses and proverbs compose a selection from writings of an age extremely remote. The " Mahabharata " and the textual Veds are of those quoted ; to the first of which Professor M. Williams (in his admirable edition of the " Nala," 1860) assigns a date of 350 B.C., while he claims for the "Rig- Veda" an antiquity as high as B.C. 1300. The "Hito- padesa " may thus be fairly styled " The Father of all Fables " ; for from its numerous translations have come JEsop and Pil- pay, and in later days Reineke Fuchs. Originally compiled in Sanscrit, it was rendered, by order of Nushiravan, in the sixth century, A.D., into Persic. From the Persic it passed, A.D. 850, into the Arabic, and thence into Hebrew and Greek. In its own land it obtained as wide a circulation. The Emperor Ac- bar, impressed with the wisdom of its maxims and the in- genuity of its apologues, commended the work of translating it to his own Vizir, Abdul Fazel. That minister accordingly put the book into a familiar style, and published it with ex- planations, under the title of the " Criterion of Wisdom." The Emperor had also suggested the abridgment of the long series



of shlokes which here and there interrupt the narrative, and the Vizir found this advice sound, and followed it, like the present Translator. To this day, in India, the " Hitopadesa," under other names (as the " Anvari Suhaili " *), retains the delighted attention of young and old, and has some representative in all the Indian vernaculars. A work so well esteemed in the East cannot be unwelcome to Western readers, who receive it here, a condensed but faithful transcript of sense and manner.

As often as an Oriental allusion, or a name in Hindoo mythology, seemed to ask some explanation for the English reader, notes have been appended, bearing reference to the page. In their compilation, and generally, acknowledgment is due to Professor Johnson's excellent version and edition of the " Hitopadesa," and to Mr. Muir's " Sanscrit Texts."

A residence in India, and close intercourse with the Hindoos, have given the author a lively desire to subserve their advance- ment. No one listens now to the precipitate ignorance which would set aside as " heathenish " the high civilization of this great race; but justice is not yet done to their past development and present capacities. If the wit, the morality, and the philos- ophy of these "beasts of India" (so faithfully rendered by Mr. Harrison Weir) surprise any vigorous mind into further exploration of her literature, and deeper sense of our respon- sibility in her government, the author will be repaid.


•"The Lights of Canopus," a Persian paraphrase; as the " Khirad Afroz," "the lamp of the Understanding," is in Hindustani.


INTRODUCTION Honor to Gunesh, God of Wisdom

This book of Counsel read, and you shall see, Fair speech and Sanscrit lore, and Policy.

ON the banks of the holy river Ganges there stood a city named Pataliputra. The King of it was a good King and a virtuous, and his name was Sudarsana. It chanced one day that he overheard a certain person reciting these verses

" Wise men, holding wisdom highest, scorn delights, as false as fair, Daily live they as Death's fingers twined already in their hair.

Truly, richer than all riches, better than the best of gain, Wisdom is, unbought, secure once won, none loseth her again.

Bringing dark things into daylight, solving doubts that vex the mind, Like an open eye is Wisdom he that hath her not is blind."

Hearing these the King became disquieted, knowing that his own sons were gaining no wisdom, nor reading the Sacred Writings,1 but altogether going in the wrong way; and he repeated this verse to himself

" Childless art thou? dead thy children? leaving thee to want and dool? Less thy misery than his is, who is father to a fool."

And again this

" One wise son makes glad his father, forty fools avail him not : One moon silvers all that darkness which the silly stars did dot."

1 The Vedas are the holy books of India. They arc four in number: The Rig-Veda, Yajur-Veda, Sama-Veda, and Atharva-Veda.


" And it has been said," reflected he

" Ease and health, obeisant children, wisdom, and a fair-voiced wife—- Thus, great King! are counted up the five felicities of life. For the son the sire is honored; though the bow-cane bendeth true, Let the strained string crack in using, and what service shall it do ? "

" Nevertheless," mused the King, " I know it is urged that human efforts are useless : as, for instance

" That which will not be, will not be and what is to be, will be: Why not drink this easy physic, antidote of misery ? "

" But then that comes from idleness, with people who will not do what they should do. Rather,

" Nay ! and faint not, idly sighing, ' Destiny is mightiest,' Sesamum holds oil in plenty, but it yieldeth none unpressed. Ah! it is the Coward's babble, 'Fortune taketh, Fortune gave;' Fortune ! rate her like a master, and she serves thee like a slave."

" For indeed,

"Twofold is the life we live in Fate and Will together run: Two wheels bear life's chariot onward will it move on only one?"


" Look! the clay dries into iron, but the potter moulds the clay: Destiny to-day is master Man was master yesterday."

" So verily,

" Worthy ends come not by wishing. Wouldst thou ? Up, and win it,

then! While the hungry lion slumbers, not a deer comes to his den."

Having concluded his reflections, the Raja gave orders to assemble a meeting of learned men. Then said he

" Hear now, O my Pundits ! Is there one among you so wise that he will undertake to give the second birth of Wisdom to these my sons, by teaching them the Books of Policy ; for they have never yet read the Sacred Writings, and are altogether going in the wrong road ; and ye know that

" Silly glass, in splendid settings, something of the gold may gain ; And in company of wise ones, fools to wisdom may attain."


Then uprose a great Sage, by name Vishnu-Sarman, learned in the principles of Policy as is the angel of the planet Jupiter himself, and he said

" My Lord King, I will undertake to teach these princes Policy, seeing they are born of a great house ; for

" Labors spent on the unworthy, of reward the laborer balk ; Like the parrot, teach the heron twenty times, he will not talk."

" -But in this royal family the offspring are royal-minded, and in six moons I will engage to make your Majesty's sons com- prehend Policy."

The Raja replied, with condescension :

" On the eastern mountains lying, common things shine in the sun, And by learned minds enlightened, lower minds may show as one."

" And you, worshipful sir, are competent to teach my children the rules of Policy."

So saying, with much graciousness, he gave the Princes into the charge of Vishnu-Sarman; and that sage, by way of in- troduction, spake to the Princes, as they sat at ease on the balcony of the palace, in this wise :

" Hear now, my Princes ! for the delectation of your High- nesses, I purpose to tell the tale of the Crow, the Tortoise, the Deer, and the Mouse."

" Pray, sir," said the King's sons, " let us hear it."

Vishnu-Sarman answered

" It begins with the Winning of Friends ; and this is the first verse of it :

" Sans way or wealth, wise friends their purpose gain The Mouse, Crow, Deer, and Tortoise make this plain."


" Sans way or wealth, wise friends their purpose gain The Mouse, Crow, Deer, and Tortoise make this plain."

" FT OWEVER was that? " asked the Princes.

Vishnu-Sarman replied:

" On the banks of the Godavery there stood a large silk-cotton-tree, and thither at night, from all quarters and regions, the birds came to roost. Now once, when the night was just spent, and his Radiance the Moon, Lover of the white lotus, was about to retire behind the western hills, a Crow who perched there, ' Light o' Leap ' by name, upon awakening, saw to his great wonder a fowler approaching a second God of Death. The sight set him reflecting, as he flew off uneasily to follow up the man's movements, and he began to think what mischief this ill-omened apparition foretold.

" For a thousand thoughts of sorrow, and a hundred things of dread, By the wise unheeded, trouble day by day the foolish head."

And yet in this life it must be that

" Of the day's impending dangers, Sickness, Death, and Misery, One will be; the wise man waking, ponders which that one will be."

Presently the fowler fixed a net, scattered grains of rice about, and withdrew to hide. At this moment " Speckle-neck," King of the Pigeons, chanced to be passing through the sky with his Court, and caught sight of the rice-grains. Thereupon the King of the Pigeons asked of his rice-loving followers, ' How can there possibly be rice-grains lying here in an unfrequented forest ? We will see into it, of course, but We like not the look of it love of rice may ruin us, as the Traveller was ruined.

" All out of longing for a golden bangle, The Tiger, in the mud, the man did mangle."

" How did that happen ? " asked the Pigeons.



The Story of the Tiger and the Traveller

" Thus," replied Speckle-neck : " I was pecking about one day in the Deccan forest, and saw an old tiger sitting newly bathed on the bank of a pool, like a Brahman, and with holy kuskus-grass 2 in his paws.

' Ho ! ho ! ye travellers,' he kept calling out, ' take this golden bangle ! '

Presently a covetous fellow passed by and heard him.

' Ah ! ' thought he, ' this is a bit of luck but I must not risk my neck for it either.

" Good things come not out of bad things ; wisely leave a longed-for ill. Nectar being mixed with poison serves no purpose but to kill."

' But all gain is got by risk, so I will see into it at least ; " then he called out, ' Where is thy bangle ? '

The Tiger stretched forth his paw and exhibited it.

' Hem ! ' said the Traveller, ' can I trust such a fierce brute as thou art ? '

' Listen,' replied the Tiger, ' once, in the days of my cub- hood, I know I was very wicked. I killed cows, Brahmans, and men without number and I lost my wife and children for it and haven't kith or kin left. But lately I met a virtuous man who counselled me to practise the duty of almsgiving and, as thou seest, I am strict at ablutions and alms. Besides, I am old, and my nails and fangs are gone so who would mistrust me? and I have so far conquered selfishness, that I keep the golden bangle for whoso comes. Thou seemest poor! I will give it thee. Is it not said,

' Give to poor men, son of Kunti on the wealthy waste not wealth ; Good are simples for the sick man, good for nought to him in health.'

' Wade over the pool, therefore, and take the bangle.'

Thereupon the covetous Traveller determined to trust him,

and waded into the pool, where he soon found himself plunged

in mud, and unable to move.

' Ho ! ho ! ' says the Tiger, ' art thou stuck in a slough ?

stay, I will fetch thee out ! '

So saying he approached the wretched man and seized him

who meanwhile bitterly reflected

* Used in many religious observances by the Hindoos.


' Be his Scripture-learning wondrous, yet the cheat will be a cheat ; Be her pasture ne'er so bitter, yet the cow's milk will be sweet.'

And on that verse, too

' Trust not water, trust not weapons ; trust not clawed nor horned

things ; Neither give thy soul to women, nor thy life to Sons of Kings.'

And those others

' Look ! the Moon, the silver roamer, from whose splendor darkness

flies With his starry cohorts marching, like a crowned king through the


All the grandeur, all the glory, vanish in the Dragon's jaw; What is written on the forehead, that will be, and nothing more.'

Here his meditations were cut short by the Tiger devouring him. " And that," said Speckle-neck, " is why we counselled caution."

" Why, yes ! " said a certain pigeon, with some presumption, " but you've read the verse

' Counsel in danger ; of it

Unwarned, be nothing begun. But nobody asks a Prophet

Shall the risk of a dinner be run ? '

Hearing that, the Pigeons settled at once ; for we know that

" Avarice begetteth anger; blind desires from her begin; A right fruitful mother is she of a countless spawn of sin.'

And again,

' Can a golden Deer have being? yet for such the Hero pined: When the cloud of danger hovers, then its shadow dims the mind.'

Presently they were caught in the net. Thereat, indeed, they all began to abuse the pigeon by whose suggestion they had been ensnared. It is the old tale !

" Be second and not first ! the share's the same If all go well. If not, the Head's to blame."

And we should remember that

" Passion will be Slave or Mistress : follow her, she brings to woe ; Lead her, 'tis the way to Fortune. Choose the path that thou wilt go."


When King Speckle-neck heard their reproaches, he said, " No, no ! it is no fault of his.

' When the time of trouble cometh, friends may ofttimes irk us most : For the calf at milking-hour the mother's leg is tying-post.'

' And in disaster, dismay is a coward's quality ; let us rather rely on fortitude, and devise some remedy. How saith the sage?

" In good fortune not elated, in ill-fortune not dismayed, Ever eloquent in council, never in the fight affrayed Proudly emulous of honor, steadfastly on wisdom set; Perfect virtues in the nature of a noble soul are met. Whoso hath them, gem and glory of the three wide worlds3 is he; Happy mother she that bore him, she who nursed him on her knee."

" Let us do this now directly," continued the King : " at one moment and with one will, rising under the net, let us fly off with it: for indeed

' Small things wax exceeding mighty, being cunningly combined: Furious elephants are fastened with a rope of grass-blades twined.'

" And it is written, you know,

' Let the household hold together, though the house be ne'er so small ; Strip the rice-husk from the rice-grain, and it groweth not at all.'

Having pondered this advice, the Pigeons adopted it; and flew away with the net. At first the fowler, who was at a dis- tance, hoped to recover them, but as they passed out of sight with the snare about them he gave up the pursuit. Perceiving this, the Pigeons said,

" What is the next thing to be done, O King? "

" A friend of mine," said Speckle-neck, " lives near in a beautiful forest on the Gundaki. Golden-skin is his name the King of the Mice he is the one to cut these bonds."

Resolving to have recourse to him, they directed their flight to the hole of Golden-skin a prudent monarch, who dreaded danger so much that he had made himself a palace with a hundred outlets, and lived always in it. Sitting there he heard the descent of the pigeons, and remained silent and alarmed.

" Friend Golden-skin," cried the King, " have you no wel- come for us ? "

•Heaven, earth, and the lower regions.


" Ah, my friend ! " said the Mouse-king, rushing out on. recognizing the voice, " is it thou art come, Speckle-neck ! how delightful ! But what is this ? " exclaimed he, regarding the entangled net.

" That," said King Speckle-neck, " is the effect of some wrong-doing in a former life

' Sickness, anguish, bonds, and woe Spring from wrongs wrought long ago.' *

Golden-skin, without replying, ran at once to the net, and began to gnaw the strings that held Speckle-neck.

" Nay ! friend, not so," said the King, " cut me first these meshes from my followers, and afterwards thou shalt sever mine."

" I am little," answered Golden-skin, " and my teeth are weak how can I gnaw so much? No! no! I will nibble your strings as long as my teeth last, and afterwards do my best for the others. To preserve dependents by sacrificing oneself is nowhere enjoined by wise moralists ; on the contrary

' Keep wealth for want, but spend it for thy wife, And wife, and wealth, and all to guard thy life.'

" Friend," replied King Speckle-neck, " that may be the rule of policy, but I am one that can by no means bear to witness the distress of those who depend on me, for

' Death, that must come, comes nobly when we give Our wealth, and life, and all, to make men live.'

And you know the verse,

'Friend, art thou faithful? guard mine honor so! And let the earthy rotting body go.' "

When King Golden-skin heard this answer his heart was charmed, and his fur bristled up for pure pleasure. " Nobly spoken, friend," said he, " nobly spoken ! with such a tender- ness for those that look to thee, the Sovereignty of the Three Worlds might be fitly thine." So saying he set himself to cut

•The Hindoo accounts for the origin every higher faculty its development;

of evil by this theory of a series of pain and misery being signs of the or-

existences continued until the balance deals in the trial, which is to end in the

is just, and the soul has purified itself. happy re-absorption of the emancipated

Every fault must have its expiation and spirit.


all their bonds. This done, and the pigeons extricated, the King of the Mice 5 gave them his formal welcome. " But, your Majesty," he said, " this capture in the net was a work of destiny; you must not blame yourself as you did, and suspect a former fault. Is it not written

' Floating on his fearless pinions, lost amid the noonday skies, Even thence the Eagle's vision kens the carcase where it lies; But the hour that comes to all things comes unto the Lord of Air, And he rushes, madly blinded, to his ruin in the snare.' "

With this correction Golden-skin proceeded to perform the duties of hospitality, and afterwards, embracing and dismissing them, the pigeons left for such destination as they fancied, and the King of the Mice retired again into his hole.

Now Light o' Leap, the Crow, had been a spectator of the whole transaction, and wondered at it so much that at last he called out, " Ho ! Golden-skin, thou very laudable Prince, let me too be a friend of thine, and give me thy friendship."

" Who art thou ? " said Golden-skin, who heard him, but would not come out of his hole.

" I am the Crow Light o' Leap," replied the other.

"How can I possibly be on good terms with thee?" an- swered Golden-skin with a laugh ; " have you never read

' When Food is friends with Feeder, look for Woe, The Jackal ate the Deer, but for the Crow.'

"No! how was that?"

" I will tell thee," replied Golden-skin :—

The Story of the Jackal, Deer, and Crow

" Far away in Behar there is a forest called Champak-Grove,6 and in it had long lived in much affection a Deer and a Crow. The Deer, roaming unrestrained, happy and fat of carcase, was one day descried by a Jackal. ' Ho ! ho ! ' thought the Jackal on observing him, ' if I could but get this soft meat for a meal ! It might be if I can only win his confidence.' Thus reflect- ing he approached, and saluted him.

5 The mouse, as vehicle of Gunesh, is ing a profusion of star-like blossoms »n important animal in Hindoo legend. with golden centres, and of the most •The champak is a bushy tree, bear- pleasing perfume.


' Health be to thee, friend Deer ! '

' Who art thou? ' said the Deer.

' I'm Small-wit, the Jackal,' replied the other. ' I live in the wood here, as the dead do, without a friend; but now that I have met with such a friend as thou, I feel as if I were begin- ning life again with plenty of relations. Consider me your faithful servant.'

' Very well,' said the Deer ; and then, as the glorious King of Day, whose diadem is the light, had withdrawn himself, the two went together to the residence of the Deer. In that same spot, on a branch of Champak, dwelt the Crow Sharp-sense, an old friend of the Deer. Seeing them approach together, the Crow said,

' Who is this number two, friend Deer ? '

' It is a Jackal,' answered the Deer, ' that desires our ac- quaintance.'

' You should not become friendly to a stranger without rea- son,' said Sharp-sense. ' Don't you know ? '

" To folks by no one known house-room deny : The Vulture housed the Cat, and thence did die."

' No ! how was that ? ' said both. ' In this wise,' answered the Crow.

The Story of the Vulture, the Cat, and the Birds

" On the banks of the Ganges there is a cliff called Vulture- Crag, and thereupon grew a great fig-tree. It was hollow, and within its shelter lived an old Vulture, named Grey-pate, whose hard fortune it was to have lost both eyes and talons. The birds that roosted in the tree made subscriptions from their own store, out of sheer pity for the poor fellow, and by that means he managed to live. One day, when the old birds were gone, Long-ear, the Cat, came there to get a meal of the nestlings; and they, alarmed at perceiving him, set up a chirruping that roused Grey-pate.

' Who comes there ? ' croaked Grey-pate.

" Now Long-ear, on espying the Vulture, thought himself undone ; but as flight was impossible, he resolved to trust his destiny and approach.

* My lord/ said he, * I have the honor to salute thee/


' Who is it? ' said the Vulture.

' I am a Cat/

' Be off, Cat, or I shall slay thee/ said the Vulture.

' I am ready to die if I deserve death,' answered the Cat ; ' but let what I have to say be heard.'

' Wherefore, then, comest thou ? ' said the Vulture.

' I live/ began Long-ear, ' on the Ganges, bathing, and eat- ing no flesh, practising the moon-penance,7 like a Bramacharya. The birds that resort thither constantly praise your worship to me as one wholly given to the study of morality, and worthy of all trust; and so I came here to learn law from thee, Sir, who art so deep gone in learning and in years. Dost thou, then, so read the law of strangers as to be ready to slay a guest ? What say the books about the householder?

' Bar thy door not to the stranger, be he friend or be he foe, For the tree will shade the woodman while his axe doth lay it low/

And if means fail, what there is should be given with kind words, as

' Greeting fair, and room to rest in ; fire, and water from the well Simple gifts are given freely in the house where good men dwell/

and without respect of person

' Young, or bent with many winters ; rich, or poor, whate'er thy guest, Honor him for thine own honor better is he than the best/

Else comes the rebuke

' Pity them that ask thy pity : who art thou to stint thy hoard, When the holy moon shines equal on the leper and the lord ! '

And that other, too,

' When thy gate is roughly fastened, and the asker turns away, Thence he bears thy good deeds with him, and his sins on thee doth lay

For verily,

' In the house the husband ruleth, men the Brahmans " master " call ; Agni is the Twice-born Master but the guest is lord of all/

f A religious observance. The devotee this by one mouthful each day, till on

commences the penance at the full the fifteenth it is reduced to one. As

moon with an allowance of fifteen the new moon increases, his allowance

mouthfuls for his food, diminishing ascends to its original proportion.


" To these weighty words Grey-pate answered, ' Yes ! but cats like meat, and there are young birds here, and therefore I said, go/

' Sir,' said the Cat (and as he spoke he touched the ground, and then his two ears, and called on Krishna to witness to his words), 'I that have overcome passion, and practised the moon-penance, know the Scriptures; and howsoever they contend, in this primal duty of abstaining from injury they are unanimous. Which of them sayeth not

' He who does and thinks no wrong He who suffers, being strong He whose harmlessness men know Unto Swerga such doth go.'

" And so, winning the old Vulture's confidence, Long-ear, the Cat, entered the hollow tree and lived there. And day after day he stole away some of the nestlings, and brought them down to the hollow to devour. Meantime the parent birds, whose little ones were being eaten, made an inquiry after them in all quarters ; and the Cat, discovering this fact, slipped out from the hollow, and made his escape. Afterwards, when the birds came to look closely, they found the bones of their young ones in the hollow of the tree where Grey-pate lived ; and the birds at once concluded that their nestlings had been killed and eaten by the old Vulture, whom they accordingly executed. That is my story, and why I warned you against unknown ac- quaintances."

" Sir," said the Jackal, with some warmth, " on the first day of your encountering the Deer you also were of unknown family and character: how is it, then, that your friendship with him grows daily greater? True, I am only Small-wit, the Jackal, but what says the saw ?

" In the land where no wise men are, men of little wit are lords ; And the castor-oil's a tree, where no tree else its shade affords."

The Deer is my friend ; condescend, sir, to be my friend also." ' Oh ! ' broke in the Deer, ' why so much talking ? We'll all live together, and be friendly and happy

' Foe is friend, and friend is foe, As our actions make them so.'


" Very good," said Sharp-sense ; " as you will ; " and in the morning each started early for his own feeding-ground (re- turning at night). One day the Jackal drew the Deer aside, and whispered, ' Deer, in one corner of this wood there is a field full of sweet young wheat ; come and let me show you.' The Deer accompanied him, and found the field, and afterwards went every day there to eat the green corn, till at last the owner of the ground spied him and set a snare. The Deer came again very shortly, and was caught in it, and (after vainly struggling) exclaimed, ' I am fast in the net, and it will be a net of death to me if no friend comes to rescue me ! ' Presently Small-wit, the Jackal, who had been lurking near, made his appearance, and standing still, he said to himself, with a chuckle, ' O ho ! my scheme bears fruit! When he is cut up, his bones, and gristle, and blood, will fall to my share and make me some beautiful dinners.' The Deer, here catching sight of him, ex- claimed with rapture, ' Ah, friend, this is excellent ! Do but gnaw these strings, and I shall be at liberty. How charming to realize the saying !

' That friend only is the true friend who is near when trouble comes ; That man only is the brave man who can bear the battle-drums; Words are wind ; deed proveth promise : he who helps at need is kin ; And the leal wife is loving though the husband lose or win.'

And is it not written

' Friend and kinsman more their meaning than the idle-hearted mind. Many a friend can prove unfriendly, many a kinsman less than kind: He who shares his comrade's portion, be he beggar, be he lord, Comes as truly, comes as duly, to the battle as the board Stands before the king to succor, follows to1 the pile to sigh He is friend, and he is kinsman less would make the name a lie.'

" Small-wit answered nothing, but betook himself to ex- amining the snare very closely.

' This will certainly hold/ muttered he ; then, turning to the Deer, he said, ' Good friend, these strings, you see, are made of sinew, and to-day is a fast-day, so that I cannot possibly bite them. To-morrow morning, if you still desire it, I shall be happy to serve you.'

When he was gone, the Crow, who had missed the Deer upon returning that evening, and had sought for him everywhere, discovered him ; and seeing his sad plight, exclaimed VOL. III.— 2


' How came this about, my friend ? '

' This came,' replied the Deer, ' through disregarding a friend's advice.'

' Where is that rascal Small-wit ? ' asked the Crow.

' He is waiting somewhere by,' said the Deer, ' to taste my flesh.'

' Well,' sighed the Crow, ' I warned you ; but it is as in the true verse

' Stars gleam, lamps flicker, friends foretell of fate ; The fated sees, knows, hears them all too late.'

And then, with a deeper sigh, he exclaimed, ' Ah, traitor Jackal, what an ill deed hast thou done! Smooth-tongued knave alas ! and in the face of the monition too

'Absent, flatterers' tongues are daggers present, softer than the silk; Shun them! 'tis a jar of poison hidden under harmless milk; Shun them when they promise little! Shun them when they promise

much! For, enkindled, charcoal burneth cold, it doth defile the touch.'

" When the day broke, the Crow (who was still there) saw the master of the field approaching with his club in his hand.

' Now, friend Deer,' said Sharp-sense on perceiving him, ' do thou cause thyself to seem like one dead : puff thy belly up with wind, stiffen thy legs out, and lie very still. I will make a show of pecking thine eyes out with my beak; and whensoever I utter a croak, then spring to thy feet and betake thee to flight.'

The Deer thereon placed himself exactly as the Crow sug- gested, and was very soon espied by the husbandman, whose eyes opened with joy at the sight.

' Aha ! ' said he, ' the fellow has died of himself,' and so speaking, he released the Deer from the snare, and proceeded to gather and lay aside his nets. At that instant Sharp-sense uttered a loud croak, and the Deer sprang up and made off. And the club which the husbandman flung after him in a rage struck Small-wit, the Jackal (who was close by), and killed him. Is it not said, indeed ?

' In years, or moons, or half-moons three, Or in three days suddenly, Knaves are shent true men go free.'


" Thou seest, then," said Golden-skin, " there can be no friendship between food and feeder."

" I should hardly," replied the Crow, " get a large breakfast out of your worship; but as to that indeed you have nothing to fear from me. I am not often angry, and if I were, you know

' Anger comes to noble natures, but leaves there no strife or storm : Plunge a lighted torch beneath it, and the ocean grows not warm.'

" Then, also, thou art such a gad-about," objected the King.

" Maybe," answered Light o' Leap ; " but I am bent on win- ning thy friendship, and I will die at thy door of fasting if thou grantest it not. Let us be friends ! for

' Noble hearts are golden vases close the bond true metals make; Easily the smith may weld them, harder far it is to break. Evil hearts are earthen vessels at a touch they crack a-twain, And what craftsman's ready cunning can unite the shards again ? '